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Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F1-Fo ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. It is composed of the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component and Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The Fo seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). ATP5H gene encodes ATP synthase subunit d of the Fo complex.