CCL4(C-C chemokine ligand 4), also known as MIP-1β, plays a key role in inflammation and immune regulation. CCL4 is produced by a wide variety of cells including: immune cells (monocytes, B and T cells), fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells. CCL4 has a broad spectrum of target cells including immature dendritic cells, which express the cognate receptor CCR5. Increased expression of CCL4 was reported in the monocytes and blood of elderly individuals. Serum concentrations of CCL4 have been found to be significantly higher in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma compared with controls.