M-CSF, also called colony-stimulating factor-1 or CSF-1), is a haematopoietic growth factor, which controls survival, proliferation, differentiation and function of mononuclear phagocytes. It also plays a role in bone metabolism, fertility, pregnancy and inflammatory processes. M-CSF may be expressed on the surface of the cell as a membrane-spanning glycoprotein or secreted into circumstance. M-CSF was identified as an 84-kDa homodimeric glycoprotein found in healthy human urine, and is present in the peripheral blood and urine. M-CSF serum levels were elevated in pre-transplant haemodialysis patients, so it might be a specific marker of Kidney Allograft Rejection.