Il17a, also named as Il-17, is a proinflammatory cytokine. Il-17, synthesized only by memory T cells and natural killer cells, has pleiotropic effects, mainly in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils. This cytokine regulates the activities of NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. This cytokine can stimulate the expression of IL6 and cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX-2), as well as enhance the production of nitric oxide (NO). High levels of this cytokine are associated with several chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. The Il-17 receptor is a type I transmembrane protein, that is widely expressed on epithelial cells, fibroblasts, B and T cells, and monocytic cells. In psoriatic skin lesions, both Th17 cells and their downstream effector molecules, e.g. Il-17 and IL-22, are highly increased.