Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1; also known as CCL2), is a chemokine that can be expressed in monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells, and belongs to the CC subfamily of chemokines. Chemokines are a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. Research has shown that the expression of MCP1 increases in the serum of patients with acute myocarditis. MCP1 is up-regulated in many types of CNS injury, including ischemia, hemorrhage, trauma, infection, hypoxia, and peripheral nerve axotomy. MCP1 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis.